Detailed Table of Contents
Abstract: On a cold May night in Durham, North Carolina, Laura Jane Grace stepped out on stage to meet a roaring crowd in the tightly packed Motorco Music Hall. Pulling out her birth certificate emblazoned with her birth name, “Thomas James Gabel,” she raised the document high for all to see before defiantly lighting it on fire. As Grace waived out the smoldering paper, she shouted, “Goodbye gender!”
Long before either Grace’s coming out, or the release of Against Me!’s 2014 album, Transgender Dysphoria Blues, the band has been reshaping contemporary conceptions of protest music. The punk group first rose to fame within their circles in the early 2000s, but have since experienced more widespread attention following Grace’s public transition. The singer has made no efforts to alter the sound of her deep, raspy shout, maintaining that, “this too is what a woman sounds like.”
Grace has been a pivotal figure in bridging the popular music scene to transgender equality issues. This piece discusses the artist’s construction of a trans-female identity in the punk community and in relation to the turbulent social-political climate faced by LGBTQ individuals. In exploring Grace’s gender nonconformity in a musical community dominated by masculinity, I consider cultural expectations of gender, performed both visually and aurally, and the ways in which Grace uses her stance as an empowered public female figure to transgress cultural expectations and draw large-scale awareness to contemporary human rights topics.
Author’s Bio: Marta Kelleher, a native of Cleveland, Ohio, is an ethnomusicologist living and working in Athens, Georgia. Marta holds degrees in Music (Cello) from Ithaca College, and in Musicology from the University of Georgia. Her work explores the intersections of music and gender, specifically the ways in which transgender, and gender variant musicians make careful choices regarding voice, affect, and image to both subtly and overtly convey messages about multifaceted, and non-binary gender identities. Marta currently works as an undergraduate academic advisor in the University of Georgia’s Hugh Hodgson School of Music. She hopes to begin doctoral studies this coming fall.
Abstract: Internationally, in the twentieth century, women in higher and managerial occupations were confronted with barriers because they had to fight prejudices concerning their ability to maintain themselves in traditionally male occupations. This was the case for instance, with women politicians in the West. More than their male colleagues, women politicians had to prove that they were fit for the job. At the same time they were supposed to have a special responsibility for their private sphere. This was more difficult in the period before the second feminist wave than after, but it became never easy. Even in the Scandinavian countries, seen as triumphs of emancipation, at least from the 1970s, it continued to be a struggle.
This article intends to delve deeper into the situation in two Scandinavian countries, Sweden and Norway. It will deal with two prominent political women leaders from these countries, namely Alva Myrdal (1902-1986) and Gro Harlem Brundtland (1939-). Myrdal was a powerful political intellectual and cabinet minister in Sweden. Brundtland would become the first Norwegian woman Prime Minister. In recent years increasing amounts of literature on female political leadership have appeared, but these are often general overviews from a political or sociological perspective. Such general facts and insights are useful, but there is also a need to explore the lives and careers of individual female political leaders. In this way we can expand the insight into how women attempt to gain admittance to political parties and the field of parliamentary and governmental politics. Both Myrdal and Brundtland have had to deal with the snares inherent in the combination of their public and private lives. Their personal biographies give evidence of this: in both cases we are dealing with feminists who attempted to find solutions for their personal problems and at the same time for those of society as a whole. These are solutions that were implemented in reality in their own countries during the second wave of feminism, and found their resonance in other countries. Nevertheless both politicians came up against the boundaries of the feasibility of their own lives, something that for them, as social-democrats – traditional believers in feasibility – must have come as a blow.
Author’s Bio: Anneke Ribberink is affiliated to the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam as a political historian. She received her PhD in 1998 with a dissertation of the early phase of the second wave of feminism in the Netherlands, ‘’Leidsvrouwen en zaakwaarneemsters.’Een geschiedenis van de Aktiegroep Man Vrouw Maatschappij (MVM) 1968-1973 (Hilversum: Verloren). At the moment she is working on a book about five important female political leaders of the twentieth century in Western Europe – Alva Myrdal (Sweden), Marga Klompé (the Netherlands), Margaret Thatcher (United Kingdom), Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norway) and Angela Merkel (Germany). In recent years her national and international publications and other activities dealt chiefly with Thatcher and Brundtland, and also the second wave of feminism.
Abstract: This paper explores the development of the conception of the republican mother within Enlightenment thought and the Classical Liberal tradition, and how conceptions of the appropriate relationship for women to the state developed in pre-and post-revolutionary America. It then examines the role women have played in political parties and participation in the United States up through the 20th century and today. Many of the same ideas about appropriate public and private activities for the sexes remain, particularly those surrounding family, children, and running for or serving in office. Contemporary women in politics face similar criticisms and backlash about their appearance and femininity as their earlier counterparts, while women themselves have attempted to fuse the public and private innovative ways. To that end, the paper asks whether the basic idea of the republican woman has changed significantly by the 21st century. How much of this same hostility are women in politics subjected to today? Do women in the United States see their relationship to the state as equal to men’s, or as something separate and different? Does one of the major political parties represent that view more than the other?
Author’s Bio: Leah Hutton Blumenfeld PhD, has been Assistant Professor of Political Science at Barry University in Miami, FL since 2010. She teaches courses in U.S. Government, Political Theory, and Comparative Politics, and has previously taught courses in International Relations and Women’s Studies. Her research interests include the militarization of the international Drug War, U.S. – Caribbean relations, political participation, and the status of women. She received her doctorate from Florida International University, graduated cum laude with a Bachelor’s degree in Spanish from Harvard University, and holds a Master’s Degree in Latin American and Caribbean Studies from the University of Connecticut. Dr. Blumenfeld has presented her research at numerous academic conferences, including the Caribbean Studies Association and Florida Political Science Association. She is ex-officio past President for the latter. Dr. Blumenfeld was appointed to the Miami-Dade County Commission for Women in 2009, became chair of its legislative committee in 2012, and was elected Member-at-large of the executive committee in 2014.
Abstract: In 1995, Hillary Clinton gave her famous speech at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, and stated that “women’s rights are human rights” and that the status of women is of great significance for the democratic development of one country in the coming new millennium. In 2003, her autobiography Living History was published and sold more than one million copies, inspiring millions of women around the world. In 2016, Hillary Clinton has become the first woman in American history to be the nominated Democratic candidate for the presidential elections and moves one step closer to break the highest glass ceiling. Influenced by Hillary Clinton and many other female political leaders, this essay will deal with the manifestation and exemplification of female leadership in autobiographies written by American female politicians.
Autobiographies written by female politicians present the female perspective on how female leaders improve the political status of themselves and women in general, and how they strive for political leadership and become role models. The present paper is focused on the development and achievement of female political leadership in Hillary Clinton’s autobiography Living History. This essay will focus on Living History as document about the empowerment of women and the political leadership, explaining how Clinton has become “a lightning rod for political and ideological battles waged over America’s future and a magnet for feelings, good and bad, about women’s choices and roles” (Clinton vi).
Author’s Bio: Yuwei Ge is a doctoral candidate at Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her doctoral dissertation focuses on female political leadership in the United States. Yuwei received her BA degree from Xi’an International Studies University in English and American Studies and her first MA degree from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in Chinese and Bilingual Studies from 2006 to 2012. She received her second MA degree from Philipps-Universität Marburg in North American Studies with her thesis focusing on American politics in television series. Her research interests include gender studies, postmodern literature, media studies, autobiography studies, American politics, and American television series
Author’s Bio: Diego Garcia Rodriguez, born in Albacete, Spain, is a doctoral candidate in Gender and Sexuality Studies at University College London. Diego received his BA in Journalism from the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) with two scholarships to study at the University of Tampere (Finland) and Korea University (South Korea), and his MSc in Asian Studies from Lund University (Sweden) via a semester abroad at the National University of Singapore. His work focuses on LGBT emancipation through Islamic faith in Indonesia, exploring the strategies used by LGBT Muslims to construct their identities and looking at the possibilities of an overlapping queer and religious agency in both secular and religious settings. His research interests include gender and sexuality studies, Indonesian studies, Islamic studies, Foucauldian theory, and queer theory. He is the co-founder of the project Binan Indonesia (www.binanindonesia.com) and can be contacted on firstname.lastname@example.org